预览模式: 普通 | 列表

1、提纲


第一节、近代金银业概貌:简述我国近代民间金银制品业的发展,外销银器业与银楼首饰业的大体状况,顺带提及传统个体打银铺、银匠摊、金箔业、银炉业、在华外资首饰银器业。


第二节、外销银器业的形成与发展:从18世纪中晚期广州一口通商以来,在洋行夷馆周边地区,外销银器行业之肇始;五口通商以后,特别是二次鸦片战争的炮火烧毁了十三行以后,粤帮和各地的外销银器业的新形式;全面抗战爆发以来逐渐走向衰落。


第三节、外销金银制品的类型:分类例举面向西方客户的中国金银器的类型,对花丝器、印度式和面向日俄客户的制品进行进一步说明。


第四节、外销银器上的标志:1)外国标志,如各国进口标等的情况;2 外销银器上的仿伦敦标志,对早期伪标进行了详尽的论述分析;3)广东帮外销银器标志的新体系,对后期粤帮制品标志进行解析,间述成色情况;4)内地银楼制作的西式器皿上的标志,即非广帮外销器的情况。


第五节、近代银楼业的兴衰:晚清民国时期银楼业的兴起和发展历程,如要做个总结,那真可谓是:卖产品,躲得过兵灾匪祸,躲不过膨胀通货,抗得住吃拿卡要,抗不住金银禁销。炒金银,逃得了市场波动,逃不了政府严令,一战时皆大欢喜,日军来破产倒闭。纵得他,趋炎附势,夤缘时会,风流一时,怎奈政权迭变太匆匆,乱世业难成。庚子、壬子、鬼子、枪子、不肖子、败家子轮流来,夺走金子,要去银子,吓破胆子。


第六节、本土金银业的业务范围和经营品种:近代银楼、金店、银匠铺、首饰店等的经营范围和主要金银首饰、器具类产品。


第七节、近代银楼的经营方式:对近代银楼的内部组织结构、管理模式、生产销售分配状况进行介绍,主要是以宁波帮和京畿大银楼的情况作为样板来论述的。


第八节、近代银楼与银匠铺的款识:按款识类型,分地点、店名牌号、材质、图标商标、年庚、押脚、数字编号及其他,7个小节略述内销制品的戳记和刻款。


第九节、近代银器的地域性特征:粗略提及首饰、器皿、珐琅银、花丝器等的主要地域流派,并指出乡村小镇的打银铺、银匠摊是地域特征产生和保存的主体,客帮大银楼是地方性风格传播的主体,传统和新风格在百余年间此消彼长不断发展演变。



2、初稿约2.7万字,刊载情况:


一~四节,荣宝斋《艺术品》2014第3期

五~七节,同上,第4期

八~九节,同上,第5期

【2015年修订版约3万字】

 

Tags: 金银器 银器 文化史 产业经济史 行会史

分类:银与文化 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 3306

“东方系列”的启动源自于2012年末与Adrien von Ferscht先生有关近代中国银器问题的探讨,虽然总体上看,这差不多是鄙人对其与格拉斯哥大学“合作项目”的当时“成果”的单方面找茬,但也让俺深感有对以中日印等国为代表的近代东方银器业的状况进一步探讨的必要。国际上目前在对中国、日本、东南亚等地此一时期金银的相关情况,了解有限,偏差较大。这是该历史时期的特殊性——东方制品(主要指器物)的消费者主要在西方——引起的,从而导致东方人对其关注很少(这两年已有很大提升),西方人则由于语言文化方面的限制,在没有专业汉学家参与的状况下,仅靠博物馆界和其他领域的热心人士,依赖一鳞半爪微不足道的外文史料,很难有大的突破。

 

目前的计划及进展情况如下:


文一:两种东方银器(东西文化交叉点上的亮色——两种东方银器)

3月15日动笔,本周内基本可以截稿,约5千字。
3月21日,初步完成。


文二:中国近代银器与金银业

是2013年整个下半年的工作重点,初稿已完,2.7万余字,从本月起在琉璃厂百年老店荣宝斋下属的《艺术品》杂志(此刊前身原属人民美术出版社)连载。


文三:我国近代金银业结构初探

3月12日动笔(动键盘?),进行中……
3月24日初稿大致完成


文四:明治维新以来的日本银器

3月25日:进行中
4月16日:初稿完


文五:日本银器主要出品商及其款识

资料收集整理中……


文六:亚洲各国银器拾零

规划中……

Tags: 金银器 银器 文化史 产业经济史 行会史

分类:银与文化 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2434

梦游会稽山赏樱遇雨

清明时节风雨雾,
枝摇叶颤花渐疏,
一春一度一荣枯。

粉瓣飘零委地铺,
无可奈何青泥处,
情非得已从容度。

作于踏青当日凌晨半醒时分

昭苏有言:每次兽性大发信笔挥洒,得到的都是平仄格律皆不对的打油,木有古诗文基础还要装B真可怕。反正人生就是充满无奈和遗憾,虽情非得已,但且从容吧。对了,实际是在不下雨的时候才上的山,也没能爬到宛委山景区的樱花林……

有照为证:山间远眺,小城半隐云雾中,风吹衣袂飒飒,若非视野下部,数抹清脆惹眼,小生或许自以为,已飘飘然于半空矣……

 

Tags:

分类:生活旅行 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2989

读无量寿经

可以理解不同宗教不同教派是为不同的群体服务的,有差异的人作为有差异的存在,需要有差异的理论和观点。但我还是不喜欢阿弥陀系或者说净土系的经典。向世界开放的人类所本能具有的,超出肉身,超出岁寿,超出个体存在的,向自身无限完美迈进的终极理想(远超马斯洛需求理论的上限),是创造出神佛之类像人而远远超越人的崇敬对象的主要目的之一。也是祈愿修成佛果,或成为能在末世时复活的义人(从而获得永生,并达到更高的层面,能更接近上帝并与之直接交通)之根本原由。如果多念念“南无阿弥陀佛”就能趋近甚至实现这一终极梦想,本无意义的人生也就显得太无意义了一点儿吧……

分类:思考感悟 | 固定链接 | 评论: 3 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 3050

Some Comments of Chinese Silver in 1757 to 1948

There were some confusion on Chinese Export Silver (CES, or Chinese Trade Silver) and Straits Chinese Silver. The introduction of a new phrase, Chinese Domestic Silver, makes things more unclear for some people. I now try to clarify some situations about the gold, silver and jewelry industry in China during middle 18c to 1940s.


1. Commercial gangs / factionalist economy in neoteric China

Ancient China is a typical agrarian society. For different reasons, some people had to leave their hometowns and acted as merchants. They would help their countrymen each other when they went to other cities to peddle goods etc. As the result, regional commercial gangs formed. Although they are called “gangs”, they actually were incompact commercial groups.


In neoteric China, there are two most important commercial gangs, one was made up by the Canton (Guangdong) merchants, and the other was made up by the business men came from Ningbo, Zhejiang. They worked all over the China, and some also went abroad to do their business.


The Canton gang appeared at early Ming dynasty, their noontide is 1760s to 1840s. After the Opium Wars, Shanghai become the largest commercial port, in about 1856, the goods imported and exported through Shanghai increased to 6.8 times as what traded in Canton. The Canton gang became less and less important from then on.


Most Canton merchants were only traders. They forced on selling goods, but didn’t attempt to found factories. But the members of Ningbo-gang are mainly industrialists. This gang formed in later Ming dynasty, became the most important business men group in later 19c to mid 20c. Their businesses involved water carriage, manufacture, financial and even entertainment industries.


2. Gold & silver manufacture industry during 18c to middle 20c

The neoteric gold, silver & jewelry firms in China appeared in middle 18c. Most of the earliest ones were set up by Ningbo merchants in Zhejiang and Jiangsu including Shanghai, namely in the regions south of the Yangtze RiverThe climax was during the end of 19c to 1930s, thousands firms were founded in that period. At that time, over a half of important firms were still under the control of the Ningbo merchants or managers. Local merchants also imitated or at less referred Ningbo people’s firms to set up theirs in their hometown. Some were registered as “Companies Limited” to the Republic China government during 1920s to 1930s.


This kind of gold, silver & jewelry firms/companies generally have four independent departments - a store or show shop, a workshop, a storehouse and a accountant's office, though they generally shared the same building. In the workshop there were a headman, some engaged workers and apprentices. Some large firms had more than one groups of silversmiths in the workshop, each group had a leader. The group leader may have an assistant and a vice assistant, they were all skillful craftsmen, to help him organize production. In some workshops, there was even a group of people producing wrapper boxes or wooden parts. A few larger companies also had a couple of affiliated workshops which had exclusive contracts to work for them.


The marks struck on an item were typically the town name, the firm name (generally made up of a brand name and a branch name), a fineness mark (in most case, it's a word meaning pure silver or gold), and may also one or two separated marks implying the silversmith group (has one or two characters) and the year the piece was made (it's a single-character mark). For an item outsourced to another workshop or silversmith (less to see, but independent workshops did exist in some cities), it might be stamped a maker’s mark instead of the internal craftsmen group mark.

 

Some silver companies use all of these marks, though most of them only beared a part of these marks onto their products. For example, leading comanies in Shanghai generally didn't stamped a "pure silver" mark on any silverware and silver  jewelry. Items sold by small stores only had a mark of the brand name (store name).

 

Most items manufactured by these companies are bracelets, different kinds of hair pins, finger rings, ear pins, neck pendants, lock-shaped pendants, hat ornaments etc. These kind of traditional jewelries were very popular with domestic customers. A large amount of them were made and sold. They are the main products of most companies, especially hair ornaments. After the starting of the New Life Movement in 1934, many women in large cities cut short their hair. As the result, the revenue of some companies decrease a lot, a few leading companies had to close.

 

Hollowware and cutleries were only a small part of their products, and mainly made in port cities between the end of 19c to ca.1947. A majority of these non-jewelry silverware are western-type items such as tea service sets,  trophies, flatware, napkin rings, shields, tazzas, comports, center pieces and a great deal of spoons in western type. A large part of western-type items were sold to foreigners came to China, or presented to them as gifts. From some people's point of view, they were a part of Chinese Export Silver.

 

These companies also made some traditional utensils for local residents, especially after 1934, including some traditional types of spoons, tongue scrapers, tradition-style teapots, wine warmer, vases, tea cups, powder bowls, censers, figures of Buddha and so on. Though a few traditional vases and teapots were also bought by or presented to foreigners - they were familiar with these types of items since China export porcelains have had the same kind of things for a long time. Traditional types of silverware is less and that's why they are far expensive than western type items. A part of traditional jewelries and utensils were gathered and resold to western countries to obtain foreign exchange during 1972~1990s. But now, Chinese collectors are taking over 10 times of money to purchase them back.


3. CES and western-style items made in Canton

When foreign traders, missionaries etc. came to China, they brought some silverware. A part China export porcelains also referred to these silver items. Neoteric silver firms have not sprung up in Canton. The main products made by the silver workshops in Canton and nearly places should be traditional jewelries. They might also produce some hollowware such as bowls, vases, censers and teapots for rich people.

 

One day, some Canton merchants found they can order customized silverware from the local silversmiths, and sold them to those foreign merchants came to China, or export directly. The earilest export goods including silver parts made are filigee fans, card cases and boxes etc. made in 18c to middle 19c. Most of they were not beared any mark, the store names such as Cumshing were printed on the wrapper boxes which are less left. From then on, the Canton silversmiths started imitating the silverware brought by foreigners, and added Chinese elements a little later. We can imagine, duo to the large demands, more and larger workshops founded, some silversmiths coming from vicinal towns also gathered in Canton.


However, Canton merchants didn’t consider having their own workshops. They only worked as intermediate traders, and sold or exported silverware via their stores or export companies in Canchou (Guangzhou) and Hong Kong, such as Wang Hing (宏興), Wing Nam (永南), Kwan Wo (寬和) and Sing Fat (生發).


From the last half of 19c, more Canton (including Hong Kong) merchants came to Shanghai to find new chances (a few may went to other cities such as Tianjin/Tientsin). A part of them got involved with silver industry. Some jewelry stores in Canton and Hong Kong set up new benches in Shanghai, such as Hung Chong (鴻昌 or 宏昌). Some Canton merchants founded stores from scratch in Shanghai, such as Luen Wo (聯和), Luen Hing (聯興), Zee Wo (時和), Zee Sung (時昇), Yok Sang (朱煜生), Wo Shing (和勝) etc.  A couple of foreign merchants also set up this kind of stores, such as Tuck Chang (德祥). Some Canton or Hong Kong based department stores opened new benches in Shanghai as well, such as Sincere (先施百貨) and Wing On (永安百貨) selling different kinds of goods including silverware and jewelries. 


Based on the craftworks, styles and chopmarks, we can sure almost all products sold by these stores mentioned above were made by Canton-gang silversmiths. Some Canton silversmiths might come to Shanghai or near cities and provided their products to these stores. I don’t have any evidence shows that Shanghai local silversmiths or workshops_ produced for them. However, some items do show the influence of Ningbo (Zhejiang) silversmiths.


So what is CES? In the very narrow sense, only silverware (including few goldware) made by Canton-gang silversmiths and sold by Canton-gang merchants can be called CES. A big part of these silver items were transported oversea for reselling, some might be sold to foreigners who came to China and bought for themselves, a few might be sold to Chinese people as a gifts to their foreigner friends etc. It’s no way to know whether the direct customer of a specified piece was an exporter or an end user, was a foreigner or a Chinese. It’s also unnecessary. We can simply classify them as CES depending on the marks. They were generally stunk a Latin mark and a chopmark on each item, some also had marks like SILVER, STERLING, 85, 88, 90, 95, 97, and even 99% [on some Tack Hing (德興) pieces]. In this way, the scope of CES is a little too narrow but the boundary is clear.


In a broad sense, any silver piece which is a western-style item and made in main export port cites are CES. Although a few fashionable Chinese people bought this kind of silver products to use as well, I think over 80% were purchased by foreigners.


If we choose the narrow sense, some silver firms such Tu Maoxing (塗茂興) in Jiujiang, Jiangxi will be exclude from CES manufacturers. However most people including Crosby Forbes, Chait and Chan did deem that Tu Maoxing was CES related. If we choose the broad sense, hundreds of neoteric silver companies will then get involved, though a larger half of their products were made for native Chinese clients.


4. Straits Chinese Silver and CES in South Asia style

A lot of Chinese people immigrated to Southeast Asia during Ming and Qing dynasties from Fujian and Canton. Some of them were silversmith. Their products have obvious signs of Fujian and Canton craftworks. However many of them were influenced by the local culture, so that sensitive people can distinguish their products from native Chinese silver. This kind of silver items made in Malaya and Singapore are so-called Straits Chinese Silver, those made in Indonesia and nearly countries are also counted in by some people.


Straits Chinese Silver was mainly made for straits Chinese families. That’s why most were only stamped a chop mark with two or three Chinese characters without any Latin letter. A few of them might be exported to Netherlands or France, though I don’t have enough data to affirm.


In the board sense, Straits Chinese Silver also includes those silver pieces having Chinese elements made in Thailand and Indochina. There were more immigrants and merchants came from China in the long history. In Bangkok, people of Chinese origin involved almost all the commerce activities, and hold some important positions regarding to commerce and trading in the Thailand government traditionally until 20c. Vietnam has been influenced by China in culture through its whole history. Those CES-like silver pieces made in Thailand and Indochina were produced by either Chinese/half Chinese silversmith family or their imitators, but they mainly sold to local customers including foreigners came from western countries. I saw dozens of Indochina silver items stamped a French import mark, but I’m not sure whether they were made for direct export or brought to France later.


Some CES were in South Asian style (such as rosewater sprinklers), and some early pieces even had evident Indian or Arabic elements. As we known, they are no relationship with Straits Chinese Silver. The marks stamped on those items also definitely show they were sold by Canton-gang merchants and made by Canton silversmith. Comparing with Europe and U.S, India and Middle East countries were very small markets, but many Canton merchants were still active there. Canton silversmith imitated these India items as they did for the western silver. They are all CES but produced for different markets. Wynyard Wilkinson has mentioned how CES transited to India for selling there.

 

Tags: 银器 中国外销银 金银器 银器知识 首饰 English

分类:银与文化 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 17915