预览模式: 普通 | 列表

读无量寿经

可以理解不同宗教不同教派是为不同的群体服务的,有差异的人作为有差异的存在,需要有差异的理论和观点。但我还是不喜欢阿弥陀系或者说净土系的经典。向世界开放的人类所本能具有的,超出肉身,超出岁寿,超出个体存在的,向自身无限完美迈进的终极理想(远超马斯洛需求理论的上限),是创造出神佛之类像人而远远超越人的崇敬对象的主要目的之一。也是祈愿修成佛果,或成为能在末世时复活的义人(从而获得永生,并达到更高的层面,能更接近上帝并与之直接交通)之根本原由。如果多念念“南无阿弥陀佛”就能趋近甚至实现这一终极梦想,本无意义的人生也就显得太无意义了一点儿吧……

分类:思考感悟 | 固定链接 | 评论: 3 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 2838

Some Comments of Chinese Silver in 1757 to 1948

There were some confusion on Chinese Export Silver (CES, or Chinese Trade Silver) and Straits Chinese Silver. The introduction of a new phrase, Chinese Domestic Silver, makes things more unclear for some people. I now try to clarify some situations about the gold, silver and jewelry industry in China during middle 18c to 1940s.


1. Commercial gangs / factionalist economy in neoteric China

Ancient China is a typical agrarian society. For different reasons, some people had to leave their hometowns and acted as merchants. They would help their countrymen each other when they went to other cities to peddle goods etc. As the result, regional commercial gangs formed. Although they are called “gangs”, they actually were incompact commercial groups.


In neoteric China, there are two most important commercial gangs, one was made up by the Canton (Guangdong) merchants, and the other was made up by the business men came from Ningbo, Zhejiang. They worked all over the China, and some also went abroad to do their business.


The Canton gang appeared at early Ming dynasty, their noontide is 1760s to 1840s. After the Opium Wars, Shanghai become the largest commercial port, in about 1856, the goods imported and exported through Shanghai increased to 6.8 times as what traded in Canton. The Canton gang became less and less important from then on.


Most Canton merchants were only traders. They forced on selling goods, but didn’t attempt to found factories. But the members of Ningbo-gang are mainly industrialists. This gang formed in later Ming dynasty, became the most important business men group in later 19c to mid 20c. Their businesses involved water carriage, manufacture, financial and even entertainment industries.


2. Gold & silver manufacture industry during 18c to middle 20c

The neoteric gold, silver & jewelry firms in China appeared in middle 18c. Most of the earliest ones were set up by Ningbo merchants in Zhejiang and Jiangsu including Shanghai, namely in the regions south of the Yangtze RiverThe climax was during the end of 19c to 1930s, thousands firms were founded in that period. At that time, over a half of important firms were still under the control of the Ningbo merchants or managers. Local merchants also imitated or at less referred Ningbo people’s firms to set up theirs in their hometown. Some were registered as “Companies Limited” to the Republic China government during 1920s to 1930s.


This kind of gold, silver & jewelry firms/companies generally have four independent departments - a store or show shop, a workshop, a storehouse and a accountant's office, though they generally shared the same building. In the workshop there were a headman, some engaged workers and apprentices. Some large firms had more than one groups of silversmiths in the workshop, each group had a leader. The group leader may have an assistant and a vice assistant, they were all skillful craftsmen, to help him organize production. In some workshops, there was even a group of people producing wrapper boxes or wooden parts. A few larger companies also had a couple of affiliated workshops which had exclusive contracts to work for them.


The marks struck on an item were typically the town name, the firm name (generally made up of a brand name and a branch name), a fineness mark (in most case, it's a word meaning pure silver or gold), and may also one or two separated marks implying the silversmith group (has one or two characters) and the year the piece was made (it's a single-character mark). For an item outsourced to another workshop or silversmith (less to see, but independent workshops did exist in some cities), it might be stamped a maker’s mark instead of the internal craftsmen group mark.

 

Some silver companies use all of these marks, though most of them only beared a part of these marks onto their products. For example, leading comanies in Shanghai generally didn't stamped a "pure silver" mark on any silverware and silver  jewelry. Items sold by small stores only had a mark of the brand name (store name).

 

Most items manufactured by these companies are bracelets, different kinds of hair pins, finger rings, ear pins, neck pendants, lock-shaped pendants, hat ornaments etc. These kind of traditional jewelries were very popular with domestic customers. A large amount of them were made and sold. They are the main products of most companies, especially hair ornaments. After the starting of the New Life Movement in 1934, many women in large cities cut short their hair. As the result, the revenue of some companies decrease a lot, a few leading companies had to close.

 

Hollowware and cutleries were only a small part of their products, and mainly made in port cities between the end of 19c to ca.1947. A majority of these non-jewelry silverware are western-type items such as tea service sets,  trophies, flatware, napkin rings, shields, tazzas, comports, center pieces and a great deal of spoons in western type. A large part of western-type items were sold to foreigners came to China, or presented to them as gifts. From some people's point of view, they were a part of Chinese Export Silver.

 

These companies also made some traditional utensils for local residents, especially after 1934, including some traditional types of spoons, tongue scrapers, tradition-style teapots, wine warmer, vases, tea cups, powder bowls, censers, figures of Buddha and so on. Though a few traditional vases and teapots were also bought by or presented to foreigners - they were familiar with these types of items since China export porcelains have had the same kind of things for a long time. Traditional types of silverware is less and that's why they are far expensive than western type items. A part of traditional jewelries and utensils were gathered and resold to western countries to obtain foreign exchange during 1972~1990s. But now, Chinese collectors are taking over 10 times of money to purchase them back.


3. CES and western-style items made in Canton

When foreign traders, missionaries etc. came to China, they brought some silverware. A part China export porcelains also referred to these silver items. Neoteric silver firms have not sprung up in Canton. The main products made by the silver workshops in Canton and nearly places should be traditional jewelries. They might also produce some hollowware such as bowls, vases, censers and teapots for rich people.

 

One day, some Canton merchants found they can order customized silverware from the local silversmiths, and sold them to those foreign merchants came to China, or export directly. The earilest export goods including silver parts made are filigee fans, card cases and boxes etc. made in 18c to middle 19c. Most of they were not beared any mark, the store names such as Cumshing were printed on the wrapper boxes which are less left. From then on, the Canton silversmiths started imitating the silverware brought by foreigners, and added Chinese elements a little later. We can imagine, duo to the large demands, more and larger workshops founded, some silversmiths coming from vicinal towns also gathered in Canton.


However, Canton merchants didn’t consider having their own workshops. They only worked as intermediate traders, and sold or exported silverware via their stores or export companies in Canchou (Guangzhou) and Hong Kong, such as Wang Hing (宏興), Wing Nam (永南), Kwan Wo (寬和) and Sing Fat (生發).


From the last half of 19c, more Canton (including Hong Kong) merchants came to Shanghai to find new chances (a few may went to other cities such as Tianjin/Tientsin). A part of them got involved with silver industry. Some jewelry stores in Canton and Hong Kong set up new benches in Shanghai, such as Hung Chong (鴻昌 or 宏昌). Some Canton merchants founded stores from scratch in Shanghai, such as Luen Wo (聯和), Luen Hing (聯興), Zee Wo (時和), Zee Sung (時昇), Yok Sang (朱煜生), Wo Shing (和勝) etc.  A couple of foreign merchants also set up this kind of stores, such as Tuck Chang (德祥). Some Canton or Hong Kong based department stores opened new benches in Shanghai as well, such as Sincere (先施百貨) and Wing On (永安百貨) selling different kinds of goods including silverware and jewelries. 


Based on the craftworks, styles and chopmarks, we can sure almost all products sold by these stores mentioned above were made by Canton-gang silversmiths. Some Canton silversmiths might come to Shanghai or near cities and provided their products to these stores. I don’t have any evidence shows that Shanghai local silversmiths or workshops_ produced for them. However, some items do show the influence of Ningbo (Zhejiang) silversmiths.


So what is CES? In the very narrow sense, only silverware (including few goldware) made by Canton-gang silversmiths and sold by Canton-gang merchants can be called CES. A big part of these silver items were transported oversea for reselling, some might be sold to foreigners who came to China and bought for themselves, a few might be sold to Chinese people as a gifts to their foreigner friends etc. It’s no way to know whether the direct customer of a specified piece was an exporter or an end user, was a foreigner or a Chinese. It’s also unnecessary. We can simply classify them as CES depending on the marks. They were generally stunk a Latin mark and a chopmark on each item, some also had marks like SILVER, STERLING, 85, 88, 90, 95, 97, and even 99% [on some Tack Hing (德興) pieces]. In this way, the scope of CES is a little too narrow but the boundary is clear.


In a broad sense, any silver piece which is a western-style item and made in main export port cites are CES. Although a few fashionable Chinese people bought this kind of silver products to use as well, I think over 80% were purchased by foreigners.


If we choose the narrow sense, some silver firms such Tu Maoxing (塗茂興) in Jiujiang, Jiangxi will be exclude from CES manufacturers. However most people including Crosby Forbes, Chait and Chan did deem that Tu Maoxing was CES related. If we choose the broad sense, hundreds of neoteric silver companies will then get involved, though a larger half of their products were made for native Chinese clients.


4. Straits Chinese Silver and CES in South Asia style

A lot of Chinese people immigrated to Southeast Asia during Ming and Qing dynasties from Fujian and Canton. Some of them were silversmith. Their products have obvious signs of Fujian and Canton craftworks. However many of them were influenced by the local culture, so that sensitive people can distinguish their products from native Chinese silver. This kind of silver items made in Malaya and Singapore are so-called Straits Chinese Silver, those made in Indonesia and nearly countries are also counted in by some people.


Straits Chinese Silver was mainly made for straits Chinese families. That’s why most were only stamped a chop mark with two or three Chinese characters without any Latin letter. A few of them might be exported to Netherlands or France, though I don’t have enough data to affirm.


In the board sense, Straits Chinese Silver also includes those silver pieces having Chinese elements made in Thailand and Indochina. There were more immigrants and merchants came from China in the long history. In Bangkok, people of Chinese origin involved almost all the commerce activities, and hold some important positions regarding to commerce and trading in the Thailand government traditionally until 20c. Vietnam has been influenced by China in culture through its whole history. Those CES-like silver pieces made in Thailand and Indochina were produced by either Chinese/half Chinese silversmith family or their imitators, but they mainly sold to local customers including foreigners came from western countries. I saw dozens of Indochina silver items stamped a French import mark, but I’m not sure whether they were made for direct export or brought to France later.


Some CES were in South Asian style (such as rosewater sprinklers), and some early pieces even had evident Indian or Arabic elements. As we known, they are no relationship with Straits Chinese Silver. The marks stamped on those items also definitely show they were sold by Canton-gang merchants and made by Canton silversmith. Comparing with Europe and U.S, India and Middle East countries were very small markets, but many Canton merchants were still active there. Canton silversmith imitated these India items as they did for the western silver. They are all CES but produced for different markets. Wynyard Wilkinson has mentioned how CES transited to India for selling there.

 

Tags: 银器 中国外销银 金银器 银器知识 首饰 English

分类:银与文化 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 16782

英国尊贵金匠公会与伦敦鉴定所私密日志

该日志是私密日志,只有管理员或发布者可以查看!
分类:银与文化 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 1080

晚清民国的勾连双提梁壶

双提梁壶偶见有人英译为loop-handled teapot,并不普及。

(下图为中式双提梁壶与长颈执壶)


 

- 特征 -


1、此中式提梁壶的提梁与同样带提手的日本壶或西方温热水用的kettle不同。中式提梁壶在壶体前后焊接两块小板,板上开小孔,小孔略粗于提梁,提梁两端穿过小孔后勾折,故称“勾连双提梁壶”。这种提梁连接之法在唐代金银器中便较多见,如何家村出土的提梁锅、提梁罐、提梁壶(无流口,近似罐),洛阳齐国太夫人墓出土的提梁锅、提梁壶(无流口,又称盖盅),法门寺的提梁笼子等。此类壶上的一对提梁一般可倒可立,也有一些较松已无法立住。西方热水壶的提梁多为铆接,通过在提手上配象牙、木来隔热,与此勾连双提梁壶的结构有明显差异。日本壶(日文称“瓶”)的提梁与此中式双提梁也有差异,大多为环结式,梁上缠藤来隔热。


2、壶盖由链子连接在提梁上,而并非常见的由铰链连接在壶体上。壶嘴一般也同样有小盖子由链连接在提梁上。已知有8把壶嘴无盖,其中部分不排除后天遗失的可能性。另见有两壶,壶盖与壶嘴盖用链相互链接,而非挂于提梁之上。


3、壶型上大下小呈碗状,体积偏小。所见大部分壶的直径相近,有的略高胖,有的略矮狭,重量一般在二三百克,仅有个别重量只100余克或超过400克的。



- 用途 -


可谓众说纷纭,收集整理如下:


1、酒壶说

1)壶嘴上的小盖能阻止酒的挥发

2)造型结构与常见执柄茶壶不同,用途较殊亦未可知


2、茶壶说

1)相比长颈执壶,用此提梁壶倒酒颇没派头

2)在饭店、超市里偶见现代所制壶嘴带盖的小提梁壶,其品名标为茶壶

3)布列塔尼兄有一套原配原套带糖缸奶缸的双提梁壶,壶嘴亦有盖


3、茶酒两可说

理由未详寻,估计一则装几两白酒、黄酒之壶及喝中式绿茶、功夫茶之壶体积均不大,此类提梁壶都胜任;二则,从提梁等结构等看,无论是向壶中倒入热水泡茶,还是将壶浸入热水中温酒皆合适。


 

- 存世量 -


少见,或许百把以内,历年国际国内论坛、图录、资料所公开或私下提及且能确定为银制的如下:


1、刘玉平老师的錾刻诗文人物花鸟凤凰纹瓜棱壶,天津物华制,载于其所作的《洋古董银器》等书。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-168269-1-4.html


2D兄的錾刻八仙人物壶,汉口汉庆和制。
http://www.xiyangsc.com/...2720#entry12720


3、布列塔尼兄的錾刻长命富贵花卉纹三件套壶,九江涂茂兴制。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-190835-1-1.html

 

4、清茶几片兄的錾刻花卉三多壶,汉口老丹凤制。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-153583-1-4.html


5、清茶几片兄还有一个新入手带珐琅烧蓝的光湛露龙篆字花草竹枝纹壶,同样是汉丹凤的。(http://www.3d9r.com/thread-267531-1-1.html


6、眼镜兄一錾刻双提梁壶。


7、金银沙龙2011年展会图录36页,锤碟浮雕西厢记故事人物壶,上海费文元制。


8、金银沙龙2011年展会图录49页,錾刻皮球花壶,上海杨庆和制(似已转给silveragain)。


9、金银沙龙2011年展会图录52页,瓜棱壶,上海方九霞制(日本回流,似已转给silveragain)。
(http://bbs.sssc.cn/viewthread.php?tid=1235755)


10、三多网友zhuzhu0502所发錾刻长寿竹梅纹壶,上海杨庆和制。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-99835-1-4.html


11、三多网友zhuzhu0502所发錾刻诗文人物壶,北京天宝制(日本回流)。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-99048-1-1.html


12、盛世收藏网友的錾刻人物瓜棱壶,长沙余太华(拍卖公司误做金大华)制(日本回流)
http://bbs.sssc.cn/viewthread.php?tid=2166352


13~16银屋藏娇女士目前有四把,包括一把带有一片冰心字样和蝶恋花图案的京工填珐琅壶,天津恒利制。

 

17、三多网友你好0509的一把,天津物华款。
http://www.3d9r.com/...tid=64582&page=3#pid240794

 

18、谢建骁先生的錾刻人物场景花卉壶一把,载于其所作的《古董金银器收藏投资完全手册》一书

http://www.3d9r.com/...tid=64582&page=4#pid240946

 

19、某年轻友人朋友有一把,藏于其天津老家,未公开过。

 

20~21、盛世收藏网友守默庐晒出的一对凤翔款錾刻花银壶。
http://bbs.sssc.cn/viewthread.php?tid=891251

 

22、盛世收藏网友花玄月的竹纹银壶,上海裘天宝制(酒精炉座应是另配的,是一无关物)。(http://bbs.sssc.cn/viewthread.php?tid=1218233

 

23~24、盛世收藏网友miaoxiaoni的一大一小二壶,是尺寸差别较大的一个特例。
http://bbs.sssc.cn/viewthread.php?tid=1771991

 

25、清冽缠绵的錾刻兰竹诗文壶。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-180612-1-1.html

 

26、Brotherman的錾刻花鸟蝴蝶回纹壶,芜湖叶同庆。
http://www.3d9r.com/thread-272581-1-1.html

 

27、华夏国拍2012年12月6日拍出的102克小型花鸟提梁壶,17000元
www.hxcz888.com/hx_yz_show_nr.asp


28、本人所藏的錾刻花鸟竹蝶纹壶,上海杨庆和制,与上述杨庆和的相比属另类。(http://www.3exware.com/home/article.asp?id=145

 

此外,刘玉平老师曾有天津物华款一把,因有伤残而处理了;清茶几片兄还知道另外2把不在此列;加之另一友人提供的关于另一把方九霞银壶的消息,凡此共计32,多为各地名楼所出。在一外国网站上见过两执壶和一个双提梁壶的组合(见于最顶部的图中),应非银制,故未列入(感谢aclouis兄补充提供11、12号壶的信息,感谢夏墨兰师姐提供25号壶的链接,感谢银屋藏娇、清茶几片给出其藏品情况等信息。

 

(2012年9月30号初稿,最后修订2012年12月16日)

古董银器收藏鉴赏系列

Tags: 银器 双提梁壶 杨庆和 银器知识

分类:银与文化 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 7850

21:11

今年的佳士得秋拍“重要银器及工艺精品”(Important Silver and Objects of Vertu)就要开始鸟,北京时间晚上十点(纽约十点上午十点)锁定佳士得频道~~~

22:02
今年的主角是这个大托盘,似王室定制,总重近8.5公斤,通体鎏金,艺术风格个人认为是洛可可。1824年制,作者不算是太重要的银匠。外圈图案有罗马神祗和狩猎图景(有个丘比特)。中间为岛国大徽,下面还带圣乔治屠龙,盾上是英格兰走狮Leopard、苏格兰立狮、爱尔兰Hibernia、汉诺威选候徽。至于为啥有个汉诺威选候家徽嵌在中间……你懂得(学过岛国历史的话)。


 

22:06
这回的拍卖师长这样……


 

22:19

已经开始了……今天的网不太好,有点儿卡。按惯例,最开始是现代银器部分,基本就是意大利的Buccellati和瑞典的Georg Jensen两家的东西轮流上……好卡,都听不出这哥们儿声线如何了……图:19号Georg Jensen套壶(成交价$15000),38号Buccellati汤釜(钮似孔雀石所制,成交价2万美刀),以及Buccellati的绒毛小银兽(成交价$32500、$6250、$52500、$30000)……

 


22:46
接下来照常是Objects of Vertu部分,主要包括小金器(如金制鼻烟盒)、用珠宝石材做的非首饰类物件(如小摆件)、动偶、八音盒,等等。这部分大体上是法国人和瑞士人的天下。今年这部分只有Lot 46~50共五件。
下面分别是标的48($21250)、49($8125)、50($194,500)


 

22:54

再接下来上了几件套法国银器,有19世纪的有二战前的20世纪老货,然后是西班牙殖民地(拉美)器物,比如这个号称17世纪(貌似)墨西哥称银制-木雕圣物匣(Lot 61,流拍)。

 

23:02

然后是欧洲大陆银器。18世纪以来的欧洲银器,法国做的是精美细致的奢侈品,德国做的是粗糙混沌的日用品。总体上荷兰意大利西班牙北欧随德国,奥地利随法国。英国人两种都做……下面这俩是德国的,17世纪末18世纪初,还算比较精美(lot 72~73,杯2483克,$35,000和$110,500——天,这个马只有649克)。

 


 

23:11

岛国银器总算来了,The Corporation of the City of London送给威尔士亲王(后来那个不爱江山爱美人登基不满一年就私奔而去的温莎公爵爱德华八世国王)的酒壶(77号标),1908年当时的大公司Goldsmith & Silversmith公司制作,落槌价$122,500。

 

 

20:31

接下来都是些英格兰18世纪末~19世纪上半叶大牌银匠的作品了,Robert Garrard(后来长期的英国皇冠珠宝商)的烛台、汤釜,Samuel Hennell的大盘子,可惜都不算是精品,不能代表各家的水平啊。这个1826年的奖杯,还不错,作者不熟($13750)。另外,主角大盘刚刚$74500成交。

 


 

23:32

这次Paul Storr的东西非常多,普品不少,也有些好东西,虽然没有去年秋拍时那种超赞大雕塑烛台或中央饰盘……

比如下面这个大烛台(Lot 99,$98500)……一二三四五六七,嗯,简直跟犹太人的七支烛差不多了,不过犹太人的是金的。另外这个大茶炊也够份量(Lot103,流拍)。

 

 

23:39

后面还有不少Paul Storr的。这个带盖主菜碟有伊斯兰-阿拉伯-波斯-印度风啊(瞧俺这名字起的,Lot 107,$25000)。……这不是个帽子哇!

 


 

23:49

从Lot 129开始换拍卖师了,今年春拍的时候没换过。前面有对Benjamin Smith(1st)的烛台(Lot 93,12895g,$206,500)下半场又连续来了几件他的东西……这几件中规中矩也还不算太惊艳,还不如悠悠的烛台呢,略过。

 

00:03

哇塞,这两个大茶托的刻工好赞(是刻的么,想象不出),都是Paul Storr家出的。盘子上面的图案还不及仔细研究。但至少那个持枪置盾的女神,可以确定是不列颠女神Britannia,她把狮子带出来了,这样就不会被误认为是密涅瓦啥的了。还不知是刻画的是啥战役,可能是跟罗马人PK?不管了…… 让俺先淌会儿哈喇子……

有女神那个:4681g,Lot 136,$68500;另一个:8464g,Lot 135,$80500。

 

 


00:14

接下来几十个标的都是乔治二、三时代的老英式风格,素雅有余艺术性不足。比如:1783年贝特曼奶奶的小托盘,152号标,1814克,成交价$7500。一会儿等英国银器老大德拉美尔和更早的查理、安妮女王、威廉与玛丽时代的东西出来再继续。先再挑几个有点儿意思的乔治二、三时代的东西给大家看下:

171号鎏金纪念大花盆,1774年,6891g,$64900;

183号奖杯,1763年,3081g,$9375;

185号汤釜,1750年,4844g,$30000;

214号烛台4只,1733年,9548g,$290,500(图略);

218号中国风奶缸(让人顿时想起西方人早期仿的中国瓷器,可惜落单了),1737年,216g,$6250。

 

 

01:38

最后是保罗·德·拉美尔作品和更早期的老古董。德·拉美尔的精品都在博物馆了(主要是V&A),这几件虽然都是普品,但价格依旧一贯地惊人:

标的222,1736年93克素面小茶杯,$7500;

标的224,1731年626g小托盘,$21250;标的231,1727年1763克热水壶+酒精炉$22500。

 

 

01:56

中古银器登场(选部分):

标的221号,安妮女王时代马克杯,241克,$2750(高过中国外销银里的等重mug了);

232号,乔治一世时代奶缸,274克,$13750(卖葛的!);

238号,安妮时代咖啡壶,1127克,$32500;

240号,1679年查理二世时期261克浆果碟,$5000。

没等护国公出来找查理二世报掘坟鞭尸之仇,拍卖师就先下场了,直播到此结束!

西洋古董银器收藏鉴赏系列

Tags: 佳士得 银器 金银器 器物展拍

分类:思考感悟 | 固定链接 | 评论: 0 | 引用: 0 | 查看次数: 3873